Funding Agencies and Partners on this Project

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This project was funded by the Fisheries Research Development Corporation (FRDC)

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This project was based at Northern Institute at Charles Darwin University

In collaboration with CDU Aquaculture

This project’s success was also dependent on the support of Crocodile Island Rangers and Yagbani Aboriginal Corporation.

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in Partnership with The Northern Territory Government’s Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries and Darwin Aquaculture Center (DAC)

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How resources, Vocational Training Package, qualification levels and work match up.

This document’s mapping of exemplar clips to units of competency is awaiting approval from relevant educational authorities. Once it is approved, full details of the unit skills sets will be added to qualify them as covering evry element and outcome from each unit.

Teaching slideshows addressing each element in units of competency for the VTP are :

SFIAQUA216B Harvest Aquaculture Stock: harvest-stock-element-1-slideselement-2-harvest-trepangelement-3

SFIAQUA215B Carry out on-farm post-harvest operations: trepang-post-harvest

Potential work VTP units NQF level Relevant Clip
Collect sea cucumbers and  oysters from ranch / farm Harvest cultured or held stock 

also elements taught :

SFIAQUA215B Carry out on-farm post-harvest operations

Cert level 2 Gail’s oyster story

Maurice’s Trepang Story

Big Trepang for kids

Fixing long lines, cleaning baskets,

Repairing clips on baskets

Maintain stock culture, holding and other farm structures Cert level 2 How to Fix a long line

 

collecting stock for processing

processing stock

Handle stock Cert level 2 Gail’s Trepang Story

Maurice Trepang Story

Collecting stock for breeding program

Packing stock for shipping to breeding program

Collect brood stock and seedstock Cert Level 2 Gail’s Oyster story
Measuring growth, water quality, salinity, plankton and bacteriology sampling Monitor stock and environmental conditions Cert level 2 Measuring growth

Water Sampling

Water Bacteriology Methods

Measuring Salinity

Plankton Methods

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Resources, Vocational Training Program (VTP), Work skills and qualification levels

 

Potential work VTP units NQF level Relevant Clip
Collect sea cucumbers and  oysters from ranch / farm Harvest cultured or held stock Cert level 2 Gail’s oyster story

Maurice’s Trepang Story

Big Trepang for kids

Fixing long lines, cleaning baskets,

Repairing clips on baskets

Maintain stock culture, holding and other farm structures Cert level 2 How to Fix a long line

 

collecting stock for processing

processing stock

Handle stock Cert level 2 Gail’s Trepang Story

Maurice Trepang Story

Collecting stock for breeding program

Packing stock for shipping to breeding program

Collect brood stock and seed stock   Gail’s Oyster story
Measuring growth, water quality, salinity, plankton and bacteriology sampling Monitor stock and environmental conditions Cert level 2 Measuring growth

Water Sampling

Water Bacteriology Mehtods

Measuring Salinity

Plankton Methods

VTP226 Remote Aquaculture and Fisheries registered at Charles Darwin University

In 2016 CDU will be developing and formalising a VTP selected from the full SFI20111 Certificate 2 in Aquaculture from the Seafood Industry package. This is in line with flexible delivery training frameworks which enable skill development that is locally relevant. The skill set units are:

  • SFIAQUA201C Collect brood stock and seed stock
  • SFIAQUA206C Handle stock
  • SFIAQUA213C Monitor stock and environmental conditions
  • SFIAQUA216B Harvest cultured or held stock
  • SFIAQUA217B Maintain stock culture, holding and other farm structures

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Links to Maritime Operations Skills and Qualifications

Here are some links to information about full certificates in Maritime Operations.

This aids people in gaining Coxswains Licensing and boat management skills.

Certificate 1 Level here 

Certificate 2 Level here

Certificate 3 Level here

Certificate 4 Level here (Master up to 35 metres Near Coastal)

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Training Approaches

With mentor and stakeholder feedback, this framework will provide training that is fit for purpose and meets the needs of the training cohort. Feedback from trainees, industry, training providers and departmental reference groups will further embed relevance and currency in the framework. The use of technology in the resource design is collaborative with the learning and work contexts of the cohort;

‘Technologies cannot be used uncritically; rather they are used within social contexts. It is important to understand the relationship between social, cultural and physical contexts in which learners and (mobile) technologies operate.’ (Wallace, 2011)

Applying Open Educational Practices (OEP)  to workforce development and training increases community ownership. This ‘opens up’ community-led learning development  that  sustains engagement for participants. Furthermore, this can highlight the extent to which OEP are ‘open’ to learners’ realities.  There is a shift away from resource ‘use’ towards finding evidence for  OEP (Weller, 2014). This emphasises the distinction between resources that are freely available for use and the practices involved in learner-led creation of resources. The creation of resources by learners themselves in this framework is, according to Stagg (2014) the most open of OEP.

In this project, researchers from Northern Institute work with Industry representatives, vocational educators, ranger facilitators and Indigenous rangers in East Arnhem to develop an e-learning approach in the ‘Certificate II’ course comprised of Aquaculture, Fisheries Compliance, Business and IT/Multimedia skills.

There are many challenges to the effective delivery of training and professional development for remotely located Indigenous learners.

  • High levels of staff-turn over mean trainers and facilitators often have limited experience of working in remote Indigenous community contexts, and of workplace training per se.
  • The experience, knowledge and skills of students vary widely. Although they usually speak several Aboriginal languages as well as English, students generally have low levels of English literacy and numeracy.
  • The oft-used traditional training models of experiential English-based learning supported by paper workbooks are inflexible and ill-suited to remote Indigenous contexts. They don’t support students to access and demonstrate deeper understanding, and provide minimal opportunity for the meaningful integration of Indigenous knowledge, cultural land and sea management practices and remote work-place learning.

In contrast, the East Arnhem Indigenous Fisheries Network Training Framework approach utilises a suite of e-learning tools, skills and processes to create high-impact, integrated, flexible and engaging teaching, learning and assessment experiences.

  • Making trainee cohorts the authors for teaching and learning makes delivery more inclusive and far-reaching given online access to education resources, social media and mobile/ audio-visual technology. This can further motivate learners to engage in training which use this technology. The fact that these resources will showcase the skills of the role models as having a direct audience (co-workers) could enhance the motivational factor of the learning regarding audience.
  • Giving trainees authentic tasks, adds to a student’s motivation to persevere. Given the use of skills in workplaces as training material, this framework and associated resources can contribute motivational OTJ / RPL materials for remote Indigenous learners.
  • Acknowledging the range of proficiency in LLN skills leads to a supportive approach, given the use of technology and mobile learning devices to record audio-visual demonstrations of skills. Using the technology in this way enables trainers and trainees to ‘self-scaffold’ the learning, meeting the trainee at the level they are capable of and comfortable with. This approach, it is hoped, will enhance efficient, collaborative relations between trainees and training providers.

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Our Videos from Warruwi

Here are some of the clips we made at Warruwi. The people in these clips gave us permission to put them on the internet.

This link will take you to our ‘Vimeo’ channel, where you will be able to watch all ten of the clips.

Other training resources were also made for remote delivery for CDU’s Aquaculture Team. Here is an example: trepang-post-harvest

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Links to qualification information

DSC00031These two links cover all the qualification details currently required to achieve completion in either certificate 2 or 3.

This is the entry point to a qualification in the seafood industry: First level

This is the next qualification to gain if a leadership role is preferred: Next level

The Indigenous Fisheries Training Framework (and skill-based Vet Training Package made from units all on Scope at CDU) we are developing includes the core units needed as well as the elective options available that are more relevant to remote NT Fishing Business Development.

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Learning Options

footprints

This framework provides a range of options to choose from. It attempts to meet learners with the skills they already have and present options to complement them with flexible digital methods. It is built on the foundation of what exists in people’s preferences for their learning, communities and business. Below is a set of questions and options to help determine what path to take.

Learning Questions

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Literature About Aquaculture Business Developemnt

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ENABLING PROSPERITY: SUCCESS FACTORS FOR INDIGENOUS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. WESTPAC, 2014 This publication reports on research done in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the US to develop a framework for factors that lead to successful economic development in Indigenous communities.

The Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander Commercial Development Corporation: a new approach to enterprise? CAEPR, (Arthur, 1996) Early research based on the 70s-90s eras and the development of the Corporation as limited by social goals , suggesting additional emphasis be placed on economic ones.

Sustainable development options on Aboriginal land: The hybrid economy in the twenty-first century. Altman, 2001 Another early piece about hybrid economies in remote Indigenous communities, and presents an argument for the development of a hybrid analytical and intellectual framework that combines science, social sciences and Indigenous knowledge systems with which to better analyse and develop remote Indigenous economies.

Economic Development and Indigenous Australia: contestations over property, institutions and ideology. Altman, 2004 An argument for comprehensive understanding and recognition of customary activity in the development of a hybrid economy.

Microfinance in Africa: Is it Either the Problem or the Solution? Buckley, 1997 This paper provides a critique of the emphasis on micro-finance in remote communities and suggests real structural change is required as part of a complex solution to developing remote enterprise.

Indigenous community enterprises in Chiapas: a vehicle for buen vivir? Geovannini, 2014 Development models which emphasize the importance of indigenous culture, the natural environment, and collective well-being.

Working from Our Strengths: Indigenous Enterprise and Training in Action and Research. Wallace, Curry, Agar, CS4.2 Development and conservation: indigenous businesses and the UNDP Equator Initiative. Berkes and Adhikari, 2006 An overview of a series of recent projects developed around enterprise development and training. The issues project teams have explored include the recognition of diverse knowledge systems within the Recognition of Prior Learning process, the role of digital literacies in sharing knowledge and work-based learning.

Australian Indigenous women’s seafood harvesting practices and prospects for integrating aquaculture. Fleming, Petheram and Stacey, 2015 Discusses points associated with success and failure in aquaculture projects in Northern Australia.

An Examination of Indigenous Entrepreneurs. Foley, 2003  Contemporary urban Indigenous entrepreneurs  and the Indigenous cultural paradigm of success is examined.

DOES BUSINESS SUCCESS MAKE YOU ANY LESS INDIGENOUS? Foley, 2006 An exploration of the complexities and value systems associated with being a successful Indigenous businessperson.

Knowledge Foundations for the Development of Sustainable Wildlife Enterprises in Remote Indigenous Communities of Australia. Fordham, Fogarty, Corey and Fordham, 2010 CAEPR – This paper analyses the Indigenous ecological knowledge and western science underpinning economic development and employment whilst providing people with opportunities to continue their close connection with country and to maintain customary wildlife harvesting practices.

The Importance of Indigenous Educational Outcomes To Small Enterprise Development Within Remote Indigenous Communities of Northern Australia. Fuller, Howard, Gunner and Holmes, 2003 Assessment of whether the school system provides skills to facilitate the development of an entrepreneurial culture in Indigenous school leavers.

Indigenous Micro-enterprise Development in Northern Australia – Implications for Economic and Social Policy. Fuller, Howard and Cummings, 2002 A central argument of this paper that it is necessary to achieve an increased degree of economic equality before many of the social inequalities which also confront Indigenous Australians can be addressed. It is further argued that micro and small business development provides a promising avenue for economic development leading to an increased degree of Indigenous control over resources.

The Role of Aquaculture in Rural Development. Halwart, Funge-Smith and Moehl (2003) Discusses the importance of small scale aquaculture projects to food security and rural development and suggests multi sector and structural integration among ohter strategies for promotion of the business.

The Coorong Wilderness Lodge: A case study of planning failures in Indigenous tourism. HIggins-Desbiolles, Trevorrow and Sparrow, 2014 focusing on the failure of Indigenous tourism business, this story highlights diverging views of how such enterprises should be supported which is in part explained by cultural differences, diverging expectations and poor communications across such divides.

Impact Assessment Methodologies for Micro-finance: Theory, Experience and Better Practice. Hulme, 2000 This paper reviews the methodological options for the impact assessment (IA) of micro-finance.

Indigenous small enterprise development: Implications for policy. Fuller, Gunner and Holmes.(2003) Establishes small enterprise as a way forward for enhanced economic independance of Indigenous Australians.

Enterprise Development: A Model for Aboriginal Entrepreneurs. Ivory, 1999. Creation of a process that enables business growth in the Aboriginal sector.

Rights and ownership in sea country: implications of marine renewable energy for indigenous and local communities. Kerr, Colton, Johnson and Wright, 2015 Case studies in Scotland, Canada, New Zealand and Australia reveal a dynamic tension between: an economic development ‘blue growth’ agenda requiring the creation of private rights in the sea; and socio-political drivers which seek to address historic injustices and increase access to natural resources by indigenous and marginalised coastal communities.

Grass burning under our feet: Indigenous enterprise development in a political economy of whiteness. Bannerjee and Tedmanson, 2010 …many barriers are the material effects of discursive practices of ‘whiteness’ in the political economy. We discuss the relationships between institutions and Indigenous communities that constitute the Indigenous political economy and argue that these relationships are informed by discursive practices of whiteness and colonial-capitalist relations of power.

The Role of Small and Medium Enterprises in Transition: Growth and Entrepreneurship. McIntyre, 2001 A wider study focusing on SMEs and finding that there are opportunities for SME growth in even those transition environments that diverge far from free-market conditions.

Who Pays Attention to Indigenous Peoples in Sustainable Development and Why? Evidence From Socially Responsible Investment Mutual Funds in North America. Nikolakis, Nelson, and Cohen, 2014  A study of the extent to which IPs and their rights are being recognized by non–state market–driven governance mechanisms meant to promote more sustainable business practices, in this case North American socially responsible investment (SRI) mutual funds.

Newfoundland and Labrador Provincial Regional Development Policy. Vodden, Gibson and Daniels 2014 Government policy document outlining this remote and regional area of Canada’s development policy. Of particular note is the ‘new regionalism’ model that takes into account regional themes.

PROMOTING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATIVE SMEs IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY: TOWARDS A MORE RESPONSIBLE AND INCLUSIVE GLOBALISATION. OECD 2004 Promotion of investment capacity of SMEs and policy coherence.

Innovation and Inclusive Development. OECD 2013 Providing examples of how innovation in technology, economic development and development of traditional knowledge can aid in inclusion.

Barefoot Entrepreneurs Imas, Wilson and Weston, 2012-  challenges us to seek better explanations for how these individuals apply their entrepreneurial practices, discourses, (social) creativity and novel organizational skills to maintain communal, organizational, familial and personal wellbeing.

Can aquaculture benefit the extreme poor? A case study of landless and socially marginalized Adivasi (ethnic) communities in Bangladesh. Pant, Barman, Murshed-E-Jahan, Belton and Beveridge, 2014.pdf  A case study that proves that aquaculture benefits  landless, socially marginalized and extremely poor communities by demonstrating its relevance to improving livelihoods, provided that a diversified approach is followed and interventions are tailored to needs and capabilities of target households.

Indigenous tourism in Australia: Time for a reality check. Ruhanen, Whitford and McLennan, 2015  The results of the research show that while there has been much progress in the development of this niche tourism sector, there is low awareness, preference and intention to participate in indigenous tourism experiences in Australia.

Neoliberalising coastal space and subjects: On shellfish aquaculture projections, interventions and outcomes in British Columbia, Canada. Silver, 2013  Findings and discussion offer perspective on the sorts of choices that First Nations might encounter in the pursuit of shellfish aquaculture, as well as raise bigger questions about whether or how Nations might tradeoff territorial authority and collective harvest opportunities against leasing state-sanctioned private marine tenures.

I N D I G E N O U S E M P L O Y M E N T: A S T O R Y OF CONTINUING GROWTH. Gray, Hunter and Howlett, 2013 Analysis of census data on Indigenous Australian’s involvement in CDEP and non-CDEP employment.

Indigenous Peoples’ Interest in Wildlife-Based Enterprises in the Northern Territory, Australia. Zander Austin and Garnett, 2014 Animal, plant, land and sea employment and enterprise aspirations for community-specific employment planning.

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Links to Aquaculture Core Skills

estuary

The following links are to the Core units that are required to Complete a full Certificate in Aquaculture.

SFICORE101C_R1 Apply basic food handling and safety practices

SFICORE103C_R1 Communicate in the seafood industry

SFICORE105B_R1 Work effectively in the seafood industry

SFICORE106B_R1 Meet workplace OHS requirements

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